Skip to main content

Full text of "North Carolina Symphony: Tips to Teachers - Symphony Orchestra"

See other formats


7TPS15 
" TeAPHErS 



Ti 



DO 



8§B^ 



M 



as^as 




Ade line °M c C Alt 

° N°rJh Caf°unA 
Symphony ° 
orchestra ° 

CHllgREN'S 
oNCERJS- 



K..PALME.R 61 



H 



L 



By Adeline McCall 
CONTENTS 

2 Getting Ready for Your North Carolina Symphony Orchestra Concert 

SEASON 1981-1982 

3 Information for Teachers on the Children's Concert Program 

3-6 A MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S DREAM Mendelssohn 

Wedding March 

7 THE PERCUSSION SCORE 

8-9 THE STAR-SPANGLED BANNER National Anthem 

10 - 11 THE FIREBIRD BALLET SUITE Stravinsky 

The Infernal Dance of King Kastchei 
Finale 

12-14 SYMPHONY No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67 Beethoven 

First Movement - Allegro con brio 

15 - 16 GIRL CRAZY Gershwin 

Overture 

17 I'D LIKE TO TEACH THE WORLD TO SING Backer 

18 - 21 CAPRICCIO ESPAGNOL Rimsky-Korsakof f 

Fourth Movement - Scene and Gypsy Song 
Fifth Movement - Fandango Asturiano 

22 - 24 Movement and Music 

FREEDOM IN MOVEMENT EXPRESSION 

EXPLORING DIFFERENT TYPES OF FREE MOVEMENT 

25 - 28 Bibliography 

BOOKS 
FILMS 
FILMSTRIPS 



Tips to Teachers Copyright © 1981 , by Adeline McCall 



Getting Ready For Your 

NORTH CAROLINA SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA CONCERT 

Season 1981 - 1982 

James Ogle, Associate Conductor 
Jackson Parkhurst, Assistant Conductor 
Benjamin Swalin, Conductor Emeritus 

Start as early as possible to publicize the coming of 

THE NORTH CAROLINA SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

to your community 

1. Send pictures and articles to local papers with 
date, time and place of the children's concert. 

2. Arrange for radio and television announcements. 

3. Distribute memos to parents. 

4. See that Principals, Teachers, Cafeteria Managers, 
and School Administrators have correct information 
on the DATE, the DAY OF THE WEEK, and the HOUR of 
the children's concert set in their schedules. 

5. Schedule In-Service Teachers' Workshops to prepare 
for the children's program. Include the librarians. 

Order all materials for concert preparation as early as possible 

RECORDINGS 

Mendelssohn Vanguard SRV - 161 SD Everyman Classics 

Stravinsky Seraphim Stereo S - 60022 

Beethoven Columbia 34600 - Odyssey 

Gershwin Columbia M 34542 

Rimsky-Korsakof f Columbia Y 30044 - Odyssey 

SYMPHONY STORIES 

Each child should have his own individual copy of these 
booklets. Materials printed in Symphony Stories are 
copyrighted and may not be duplicated. 

TIPS TO TEACHERS 

Information included is copyrighted. 

Address orders for all materials to: 
NORTH CAROLINA SYMPHONY 
Jackson Parkhurst, Director of Education and 

Assistant Conductor 
P. 0. Box 28026 
Raleigh, N. C. 27611 
TELEPHONE (919) 733 - 2750 



INFORMATION FOR TEACHERS ON THE CHILDREN'S 

CONCERT PROGRAM 



Children's concerts for the 1981 - 1982 season offer a stimulating 
variety of musical experiences with works by American, German and 
Russian composers. Teachers will find the school's library resources 
helpful in providing books, filmstrips and films relating to the program. 
If these serve to awaken an interest in the concert it is a good beginning, 

More important, of course, is to bring a love of music to your children 
by encouraging a great deal of quiet listening. Let the beauty of the 
music create its own magic. By avoiding gimmicks and unrelated "props" 
you free the child to express his own inner feelings. It may be through 
movement, through an art form, or in a simple way — through his own words. 

The opening number, a WEDDING MARCH, from the fairy world of Shakespeare's 
A Midsummer Night's Dream , may well bring back the memory of a summer 
wedding in 1981, when 

"All over the world, here as well as elsewhere, 
millions by the hundreds watched plumed horsemen, 
gilded coaches, gentlemen in antique scarlet, a 
girl in a tiara pronounced a Princess. And all, 
I think, hoped she and her White Knight would live 
happily ever after, as it always is in fairytales. . . 
But what if it was all make-believe for a brief and 
shining hour? The heart need not disbelieve in 
fairies because the eyes have never seen one this side 
of the looking glass." 

— From the Wall Street Journal 
by Vermont Royster 



I. WEDDING MARCH — "A Midsummer Night's Dream" Vanguard SRV-161SD 

Felix Mendelssohn Everyman Classics 

1809 - 1847 

Mendelssohn's WEDDING MARCH, in its original setting as incidental music 
to Shakespeare's play, "A Midsummer Night's Dream," offers many oppor- 
tunities for children to explore. When the seventeen-year old Felix 
with his brother and sisters first presented the play in the garden of 
their vast estate, the audience was transported to a wonderful world of 
forest magic, with fairies, clowns and processions of royalty. 

Once children become involved in the story they will probably see the 
possibility of writing and producing a puppet show, or a dramatization 
with music and pantomime. 



Check the school library for possible filmstrips. Help the children 
to identify the four groups of characters: 

Duke Theseus and his train 

Two pairs of lovers 

Company of yokels - workmen 

Whole court of fairyland with King Oberon and Queen Titania 

The Wedding March is the music for a TRIPLE WEDDING: 

Theseus and Hippolyta 
Hermia and Lysander 
Helena and Demetrius 

Within the play there is a comic scene between Pyramus and Thisbe, enacted by 
the workmen: 

Snug, the Joiner 

Bottom, the Weaver 

Quince, the Carpenter 

Flute, the Bellows-mender 

Snout, the Tinker 

Starveling, the Tailor 
The older children will enjoy reading this in the original Shakespeare script 
(or having you read it to them). This short interlude is easily dramatized 
or made into a puppet show. It is found in Act V, Scene 1. 

About the Music 

At your children's concert the North Carolina Symphony will not play 
the entire WEDDING MARCH. You will hear only the first three sections: 

Opener TRUMPETS 

Theme I (A) WHOLE ORCHESTRA 

(Opener and Theme I are repeated) 

Theme II (B) WHOLE ORCHESTRA 

Theme I (A) WHOLE ORCHESTRA 

Theme III (C) STRINGS 

Theme I (A) WHOLE ORCHESTRA 

Let children identify: The sound of trumpets (Brass) 

The sound of the whole orchestra 
The sound of strings 

The percussion score for children to play in the classroom is on the outside 
back cover of Symphony Stories . 

About the Composer 

...Felix Mendelssohn speaks for himself in a short biography sent to 
the Berlin Academy of Fine Arts when he was elected to membership in 
the spring of 1834: 

"I was born February 3, 1809, at Hamburg; began 
the study of music in my eighth year, and was 
taught thorough bass and composition by 
Professor Zelter, and the pianoforte, first by 
my mother, and later by Herr Ludwig Berger. 
In 1829 I left Berlin, traveled through England 
and Scotland, Southern Germany, Italy, Switzerland, 
and France ..." His return to Dusseldorf, in 1833, 
and later events in his illustrious life follow. 



About the Composer , continued 

...The story of Felix Mendelssohn and his distinguished family began 
in Dessau. Here, in 1729, there lived a poor man named Mendel. 
He was the keeper of a little Hebrew day school, and a writer of 
Holy Scrolls. His son, Moses, later to be known as Moses Mendelssohn 
(or Mendel's son) was a brilliant man who wrote philosophical treatises 
and books in the tradition of Plato. He attained great prestige among 
the Christians, and was known as "the German Plato." 

...At the time of his marriage Moses Mendelssohn was living in Berlin, 
where all Jews were required to purchase a certain amount of china from 
the royal china factory, taking whatever the manager chose to unload on 
them. For Moses and his bride it turned out to be twenty life-sized 
china apes! In time they became prized family keepsakes. 

...The Moses Mendelssohns had six children. The second son, Abraham, was 
the father of the famous composer. Abraham's marriage to Leah Salomon, 
the gifted daughter of a fine German- Jewi sh family, brought him a 
dowry which enabled him to become a banker. 

...Abraham and Leah were ideal parents. Felix was the second of their 
four children. He adores his older sister, Fanny, who became a fine 
pianist and composer. The two younger children were also musicians -- 
Rebecca had a lovely voice and Paul played the cello. Their mother, 
Leah, who played and sang, encouraged home concerts as a regular part 
of family life. Aside from music her talents included drawing skills 
and a gift for languages. She could speak English, French and 
Italian. She also read Homer in the original Greek. 

...The father, Abraham, made his family rounds at 5:00 a.m. each morning 
to see that the children were up and practicing. To broaden their 
education he hired teachers of language, literature, drawing, painting, 
dancing, fencing and swimming. 

...At the age of nine Felix Mendelssohn made his first public appearance 
as a pianist. He also began to compose. By 1820, his eleventh year, 
he had written between fifty and sixty compositions, including works 
for strings, piano, organ, and a cantata. 

...In 1821 Felix's devoted teacher, Karl Friedrich Zelter, took him to 
Weimar to meet the great German poet Goethe. The aging poet was so 
impressed with the young boy's talent that he kept him as his house 
guest. Every afternoon Felix played for hours -- Bach, Haydn, Mozart, 
Beethoven, Cherubim", and his own compositions. The delighted Goethe 
became Mendelssohn's life-long friend and invited him to come back 
many times. 

...In 1825 the Mendelssohn family moved to a seven acre estate in Berlin 
at Leipzigerstrasse No. 3. Behind the imposing house stretched a green 
park, once part of Federick the Great's hunting preserve. The estate 
included, among other buildings, Abraham's banking offices and the famous 
Garden House where Fanny and Felix first presented their version of 
"A Midsummer Night's Dream." 

...As young Felix continued to work seriously at composing, he became 
greatly interested in the music of Bach, and hoped to restore his long 



About the Composer , continued 

neglected masterpieces to the world. Many of the unpublished manu- 
scripts were scattered, and some lost, so it was a great discovery 
when the score of the St. Matthew Passion came to light. It had been 
rescued by Zelter from the wrapping papers of a cheese merchant. 
Mendelssohn lost no time in organizing a Bach choir and after two years 
of weekly rehearsals the St. Matthew Passion was presented in Berlin on 
March 11, 1829. It was such a great success that the Crown Prince 
ordered a second performance two weeks later to celebrate Bach's 
hundred and forty- fourth birthday. This was only the beginning of 
Mendelssohn's many efforts to display Bach's music before audiences, 
musicians and publishers. 

...It was in the spring of 1833 that he want to Dusseldorf to conduct the 
Lower Rhine Festival. As always his work was so successful that he was 
urged to stay as "director of all public and private musical establish- 
ments in the town." 

...At the end of two years he left Dusseldorf for a more important position 
in Leipzig -- conductor of the Gewandhaus Orchestra. This orchestra, 
ranked as the finest orchestra in Europe, became even better under 
Mendelssohn's direction. His personal charm and gracious manners drew 
the players to him. But he was a strict disciplinarian, allowing no 
talking in his presence, and no noisy tuning up. 

...Mendelssohn changed the style of conducting by using a baton. Previously, 
conductors sat at a keyboard instrument, nodding their directions to the 
concert master or standing with violin in hand and signaling with the 
bow. At times when the tempo lagged they resorted to strenuous fiddling. 

...One of Mendelssohn's dreams was to establish "a solid academy of music" 
in Leipzig. After a number of years with much planning and plotting 
his dream came true. In January, 1843, the first prospectus of the 
famous Leipzig Conservatory came out with "Professors" Mendelssohn and 
Schumann at the head of the faculty list. 

...Mendelssohn's home life was a happy one. In 1836 he married Cecil e 
Jeanrenaud, the daughter of a French Protestant clergyman. There was 
no problem with religion since Felix's family had previously become 
converted to Christianity. At Leah's brother's suggestion they added 
Bartholdy to the Mendelssohn name. 

...Felix and Cecile, who was ten years younger, made their home in Leipzig. 
Here they raised their five pretty children in an environment of charm 
and contentment—reminiscent of Felix's own early childhood. 

...When Felix was returning from a trip to London news reached him that 
his sister Fanny had died. It was more than he could bear; for she 
was the closest sharer of his life's dreams and his artistic self. A 
blood vessel burst in his head, and he fell senseless to the ground. 

...For a time there was hope of his recovery, but on November 4, 1847, 
Felix Mendelssohn, a young man of thirty-eight, was dead. All of 
Germany mourned "as if a king had died." What he left as a monument 
were major orchestral works, symphonies, piano and organ music and 
two oratorios. 



WEDDING MARCH Vanguard SRV - 161SD 

A Midsummer Night's Dream Everymen Classics 

Mendelssohn 

THE PER CU SSION SCORE 

Percussion Score - WEDDING MARCH 

See the outside back cover of "Symphony Stories" 

Tea chin g_ P r ocedures 

1. Have each child prop up the score on his desk or table by placing 
a thick book on top of page 16. 

2. The percussion score is for classroom use only. Be sure that your 
children understand this. Do not bring percussion instruments to 
the concert. 

3. Before rehearsing the score have all the required instruments at 
each child's place ahead of time. 

H ere are the instruments needed : 

TAMBOURINES 

DRUMS 

CYMBALS 

TRIANGLES 

MARACAS 

JINGLE-BELLS 

RHYTHM STICKS 

4. Let the children listen to the recording several times. The score 
is written to the first part of the WEDDING MARCH. Start the record 
player at the beginning of the fourth band. Pick up the needle at 
the conclusion of the third theme. This is explained on page 6. Use 
the outline here as a guide until you are familiar with the stopping 
place. 

5. Looking at the percussion score, let the children identify the meter 
(4/4). Note that this is a march, beginning with a triplet on the 
fourth beat. In conducting, this is an upbeat on "four." 

6. Count the meter out loud, clapping the first beat in each measure: 

Four / One Two Three Four / One Two Three Four / etc. 

7. In each measure there are four quarter notes - or their equivalent. 
Have the children find different note patterns, write them on 

the board, then clap or play them with a drum: 

*j * J J i " j ji j n i 

f J JTJ J Al | H J. J J. J> | 



3 



II. Song: THE STAR-SPANGLED BANNER 

At your North Carolina Symphony concert children in the audience 
will sing two stanzas of the National Anthem with the orchestra. 
Teach the song in the key of A flat, as printed in Symphony Stories . 

Teaching Aids 

Code for the National Anthem of the United States - Authorized service 
version in A flat, with recommendations for performance. 

No. 4004 20 copies for $1.00. 

Order from M E N C Publication Sales, 1902 Association Drive, 
Reston, Virginia 22091 . 

Sound Filmstrip Set No. 39 - The Star-Spangled Banner - also includes 
Clementine, The Erie Canal and She'll Be Comin 1 Round the Mountain. 
Order from Weston Woods, Weston, Connecticut 06883 
Customer Service will accept your order or answer your questions by 
telephone. Call collect — (203) 226 - 3355. 

STORY OF THE STAR-SPANGLED BANNER 

The Star-Spangled Banner did not officially become our national anthem 
until March 3, 1931, when President Hoover signed Public Law 823, passed 
by the 71st Congress. The bill was passed despite much controversy over 
the suitability of both the words and the music. Critics contended that 
Francis Scott Key's poem celebrated a minor incident in our country's 
history with words hard to remember, set to an English drinking song with 
no patriotic significance. However, the famous American band king, 
John Philip Sousa, had this to say about the Star-Spangled Banner: 

"What matter the words? The spirit is what counts . . . 

It is a splendid march and no true American can fail to 

be stirred when it is played." 
And Americans who sing the song cannot fail to be impressed by the fact 
that this is a true "flag song" which expresses a deep feeling of loyalty 
to our country and reverence for the stars and stripes. 

The song was written in the summer of 1814 when America was fighting its 
second war with Great Britain. The British fleet expected to move into 
Chesapeake Bay and attack the city of Baltimore from the harbor guarded 
by Fort McHenry. At about this time Dr. William Beanes of upper 
Marlborough, Maryland, led a party of local citizens in arresting and 
jailing some British Army stragglers who were creating a disturbance in 
a local tavern. Because he had attacked a British soldier he was arrested 
and confined on the Admiral's flagship. Two of the doctor's friends, 
John S. Skinner and Francis Scott Key, a young lawyer practicing in 
Baltimore, went on a small cartel boat under a flag of truce to plead for 
his release. The Admiral agreed, but since the fleet was making last-minute 
preparations for the bombardment Doctor Beanes and his friends were trans- 
ferred to the cartel boat and held through the night. Here they watched, 
as bombshells exploded, to see if the flag was still flying over Fort McHenry, 
When Francis Scott Key "in the dawn's early light" first saw that the flag 
"was still there" he took an envelope from his pocket and jotted down the 
first stanza of the celebrated song. 



The Star-Spangled Banner, continued 

As soon as the firing was over the three captives were free to return to 
Baltimore. On the way back to the city Mr. Key completed the three 
stanzas, and took them to his brother-in-law, Judge Nicholson. Together 
they went to a printing office and had the poem set in type as a handbill 
or broadside for distribution. At the suggestion of the judge a note on 
the handbill said that the words were to be sung to the tune, Anacreon in 
Heaven . The Baltimoreans accepted the song instantly. That yery night 
in a tavern Ferdinand Durang, an actor, stood on a chair and sang it. 
Everyone was familiar with the tune of the drinking song, and on this his- 
toric occasion the popularity of The Star-Spangled Banne r was assured. 

The original copy of Francis Scott Key's poem, written on September 14, 1814, 
was acquired by the Maryland Historical Society for $24,000, and is considered 
one of its most prized exhibits. The famous flag over Ft. McHenry, measuring 
thirty- two by forty feet, was made by a Baltimore seamstress, Mrs. Mary 
Young Pickersgill and her twelve-year old daughter for a fee of $400.00. 
During the siege it was damaged by eleven holes from bombshells. Repaired to 
a reduced size, and mounted on a canvas backing, it is now on exhibit at the 
Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. 

About Flag s 

Your children may become interested in learning more about flags, and finding 
songs that have been written about them. Look through your school music 
textbooks. Let the librarian help by suggesting books, pictures and films 
or films trips. 

In early times there were many different kinds of flags in America, repre- 
senting the nations which had settlements in the New World. During the 
provincial period the English flag, with numerous variations was used from 
Maine to Georgia. The first flag of the thirteen colonies, 1776, had thir- 
teen red and white stripes with the red cross of St. George and the white 
cross of St. Andrew on the blue union. 

The first truly American flag, originating as the result of legislation by 
the new United States Congress, on June 14, 1777, had thirteen red and white 
stripes with thirteen white stars in a circle on a blue field. 

When Vermont and Kentucky were admitted as states, there were fifteen stars 
in three rows of five each, and fifteen alternate red (eight) and white 
(seven) stripes. This was our American flag in the War of 1812 between 
England and the United States, and the one to which The Star-Spangled Banner 
referred. 

About the Author of the Words 

Francis Scott Key's main claim to fame was as author of the words to 
The Star-Spangled Banner , written when he was thirty-four years old. He 
became a distinguished lawyer, and attorney-general of the District of 
Columbia. A volume of his verses was published fourteen years after his 
death on January 11, 1843. Today a flag always flies over his grave in 
Frederick, Maryland. 

References from The Story of Our National Ballads by C. A. Browne 
( C rowel 1, New York) 



-; 



III. THE FIREBIRD BALLET SUITE 

The Infernal Dance of King Kastchei 

Finale 

Igor Stravinsky 

1882-1971 



Seraphim 

Stereo S - 60022 



When Igor Stravinsky's Firebird was first produced at the Paris Opera in 
1910 it was the beginning of a great collaboration between the composer and 
Serge Diaghilev, Director of the world-famous Russian Ballet. The work, 
which Diaghilev had commissioned, was based on an old Russian folk tale. 
The story of the ballet is printed in Symphony Stories. When the children 
have read the story you may want to reinforce it by showing a filmstrip. 

Talk about the story, then discuss the characters: 

The terrible ogre, Kastchei 

His wicket demons 

The people turned to stone by Kastchei 's evil power 

The hero, Prince Ivan Tsarevitch 

The Firebird 

The beautiful Princesses 

The Firebird's magic golden feather 

Listen to the music several times, then invite children's ideas on what they 
would like to do. Among many possibilities they may suggest dramatizing or 
pantomiming the characters; moving to the music; painting pictures or finger 
painting; writing and producing a puppet show; producing a play; making 
costumes, etc. etc. 

Some children will be happy JUST LISTENING TO THE MUSIC. Stravinsky is the 
kind of composer who needs to be listened to and absorbed over a period of 
time. Concentrate on providing a quiet, relaxed setting. Be an attentive 
listener yourself. 

Listening Highlights 

THE INFERNAL DANCE OF KASTCHEI comes near the end of the ballet. It is 
followed by a quiet Berceuse and the Finale . The Dance, like the Dance of 
the Adolescents in the Sacre du Printemps is made of driving rhythms such 
as only Stravinsky could write. The overpowering effect of the story -- 
evil destroying itself -- may be the only highlight the listener is capable 
of absorbing. As the record is heard a number of times in the classroom 
a few of these details may become recognizable: 

1) The relentless pounding pulse, first heard in the timpani 

2) Syncopated rhythms -- misplaced accents 

3) Sudden very loud accents played by the entire orchestra 

4) Changes of meter — 3/4; 2/4; 6/4; 2/2; etc. 

5) Some outstanding instruments--flute & piccolo; trumpet; horns; 
harp; bassoons; clarinet 

6) Strings -- used percussively 

7) Chromatic and whole tone scales 



11 

About the Composer 

...Igor (Feodorovich) Stravinsky was born on June 17, 1882 in Oranienbaum, Russia, 
a village near St. Petersburg. 

...He was brought up in a musical atmosphere and became an accomplished pianist at 
an early age. 

...Igor's father was the leading bass singer at the Imperial Opera and often took 
him to St. Petersburg to listen to rehearsals and attend performances. 

...Igor had a great gift for reading music and was often found in his father's 
library browsing through opera scores. He became familiar with many operas 
before hearing them in live performance. 

...Despite their young son's musical talents, Igor's parents decided he was to 

become a lawyer. So they sent him to study law at the University of St. Petersburg 
Much as he disliked what he considered to be a "dry subject," he completed his 
course of study in 1905. 

...By now, he knew that he wanted to become a musician. He married his cousin, who 
understood how much he loved music and gave him every encouragement to give up law. 

...The turning point in his life was when the great teacher and composer, Rimsky- 
Korsakoff, took him as a pupil. From this master he learned the art of orches- 
tration, and the two became great friends. 

...To commemorate the marriage of Rimsky-Korsakof f ' s daughter, Stravinsky composed 
an orchestral work, "Fireworks." As a surprise gift, he sent it to his teacher's 
summer place. The package came back unopened. Rimsky-Korsakof f had died a few 
day's earlier. 

...Stravinsky's career as a composer was established with the success of his Firebird 
Ballet. On the opening night, Debussy rushed backstage to congratulate Stravinsky. 
From now on, Diaghilev depended on Stravinsky for his most important ballet scores. 

...Stravinsky's married life was a happy one. The Stravinskys had four children — 
two boys and two girls. 

...Stravinsky visited the United States for the first time in 1925 and returned 
a number of times to direct orchestras in the performance of some of his most 
famous works. 

...Harvard University invited him to give a series of lectures in 1939. Eventually, 
in 1941, he became an American citizen. 

...Soon after 1941, he married his second wife, Vera, and settled in Hollywood. 
They had a beautiful home and entertained visitors from all over the world. 

...Stravinsky's son, Soulima, became a fine pianist. His older son, Theodore, who 
lives in Switzerland, is talented in art, as well as being a fine photographer. 

...Stravinsky's deep roots were always in Russia. Having been exiled during the 
war years and considered a traitor to the values of Soviet Russian society, he 
was deeply moved by the warmth of his reception when, after fifty years, he 
returned for a visit to his native land. 



12 

IV. FIFTH SYMPHONY -- Op. 67, in C Minor Columbia 

First Movement Odyssey 34600 

Ludwig van Beethoven 
1770 - 1827 

Beethoven's Fifth Symphony as described by Charles O'Connell in his book 
of Symphonies, is "ruthless, blazing, cosmic," not an expression of 
one man's thought or feeling, but "the utterance of a tormented and 
puzzled and cynical and hopeful -- and finally triumphant humanity." 
The music was developing in the mind of Beethoven for many years. 

Beethoven left no program for this symphony although the first four 
notes, identified as "fate knocking at the door" has taken root in the 
minds of listeners throughout the years. Other than listening to the 
music enough times to hear and recognize the two themes, it would seem 
best for children not to enter into the complexities of trying to analyze 
the structure. Learning about sonata-allegro form may interfere with 
the enjoyment of this great music. With further acquaintance over a period 
of time, it might be quite appropriate. 

The themes are written in Symphony Stories . Let children sing them, and/or 
play them. As they listen to the recording, help them to focus on dis- 
covering the themes when they are repeated. Perhaps some of them will be 
able to recognize the use of different instruments in the repetitions. 

Other aspects of the music to "discover" are Beethoven's violent sudden 
contrasts in dynamics -- from loud to soft -- and his change of mood 
from a raging defiance to a gentle tenderness. 

About the Composer 

...Ludwig von Beethoven was born at Bonn on the Rhine River, December 16, 1770 
and was baptized the next day, December 17. He died in Vienna on 
March 26, 1827. 

...Beethoven was of Belgian descent. His grandfather and father were both 
musicians. The grandfather, Ludwig van Beethoven, was bass singer, opera 
composer, and Kapellmeister at Bonn to the Elector Clemens August. His 
father, Johann, was a tenor singer in the Electoral choir. He married 
Maria Magdalena Laym, the widow of the chief cook at Ehrenbrei tstein. 

...There were three children: Ludwig and his brothers, Karl and Johann. They 
grew up in great poverty, were shabbily dressed and ill cared for. 
Father Johann spent many hours drinking with friends at a tavern. Ludwig 
loved his mother deeply as did his brothers. They always remembered her 
birthday with garlands of flowers--for they were too poor to buy presents. 
There was no companionship between the young Ludwig and his parents. When 
he grew up he revered his mother in retrospect, but memories of his father 
were tinged with bitterness and shame. 

...Father Beethoven, realizing that Ludwig had musical talent, wasted no time 
pushing him to early training at the keyboard. By four he was at the clavier, 
forced to practice for hours, sometimes weeping as he stood on a little 
footstool. The story is told of how his father, with his tavern cronies, 
often woke the child up at midnight, and forced him to practice until dawn. 



13 



About the Compose r, continued 

...Despite the hardships of his early musical training there were some 
brighter aspects of his father's ambition. By seven Ludwig was 
performing in public. He was given lessons on the violin, viola 
and organ, and he was beginning to compose. 

...When Ludwig was nine he was fortunate in falling into the hands of a 
really fine teacher, Christian Neefe, who introduced him to the works 
of Bach. Neefe was a court musician and often allowed the boy to 
substitute for him at the organ. Ludwig did so well that he was 
appointed assistant court organist with a small salary. What a break 
for a thirteen-year old student! 

...At sixteen Ludwig went to Vienna where he played for Mozart. The 
great Mozart was impressed with his ability to improvise and is said 
to have remarked: "Keep an eye on that young fellow. Some day the 
world will hear from him." 

...Beethoven had been in Vienna only a short time when he was recalled 
to Bonn because of his mother's death. This was his first great 
sorrow. It was made almost unbearable by the shame of seeing his 
dead mother's clothes sold in the market place. For a few pennies his 
father had given them to some peddlers. 

...Ludwig was now in charge of the two brothers, and it was some time 
before he could return to Vienna. In 1792 Haydn passed through Bonn on 
his way home from London. After seeing some of Beethoven's compo- 
sitions, he urged him to leave Bonn and come back to Vienna. He even 
promised to teach him. 

...Within a year after Ludwig' s return to Vienna he had made his way 
into the highest circles of artists and art lovers, and had patrons 
who were princes. The lessons with Haydn proved to be disappointing, 
but he was now on his own, creating from his great inner resources, 
and breaking the ties with tradition. 

...Despite his glorious successes in Vienna there were bitter years ahead 
for the budding composer. By 1300 he began to suffer from deafness. 
As the malady progressed and Beethoven was no longer able to conceal it, 
he wrote letters to his friends, telling how he had struggled to ignore 
it. "For two years I have avoided almost all social gatherings because 
it was impossible for me to say to people, 'Speak louder, shout, for I 
am deaf.' If I belonged to any other profession it would be easier." 
In 1802 he wrote to his brothers, "What humiliation when someone stood 
by me and heard a flute in the distance, and I heard nothing." 

...The tragedy of total deafness did not impede the flowering of Beethoven's 
innate genius; 1800 to 1815 were some of his most productive years. 
Then in 1815 his brother Karl died, leaving a nine year old son to be 
cared for. Being a loyal family man Beethoven felt it was his duty to 



'- 



About the Composer , continued 

take over the responsibility of raising his nephew. In his ill-kept 
bachelor's quarters with a series of incompetent servants this proved 
to be an unrewarding and distracting task. Nor did the nephew Karl 
bring to the household anything but trouble. Despite his famous uncle's 
pleading he neglected his studies at the university, piled up debts, 
ran away, and finally in the summer of 1826 tried to commit suicide. 

...To help Karl recover from the pistol wounds on his head, Beethoven 
took him to his brother Johann's country home for a visit. Two 
months later, in December, Beethoven and Karl started back to Vienna, 
traveling in an open cart. The weather was bitterly cold, and due to 
exposure Beethoven suffered an attack of pneumonia, followed by dropsy 
and other complications. After several unsuccessful operations he 
died. It was reported that in the moment before his death there came 
a flash of lightning and a clap of thunder. As a last defiant gesture 
he opened his eyes and raised his right hand with a clenched fist. 

...Beethoven's funeral was attended by twenty thousand people. Among 
them were musicians, actors, titled personages, all there to pay homage 
and express their regret that so great a genius was gone. The schools 
were closed. As the mourners gathered around the bier, priests recited 
the solemn office of burial, and boys' choirs sang the composer's own 
Miserere . 

...Beethoven had two life-long passions besides his music--his love of 
liberty and of the world of nature. He wandered in the woods and 
fields in all kinds of weather, shouting, singing, and waving his arms 
as new ideas came to him. From his nature note books the following 
quotation is taken: 

"0 God, what glory 
In such a woodland placel 
On the heights is peace -- 
Peace to serve Thee — 
How glad am I 

Once again to be able to wander 
In forest and thicket 
Among the trees, 
The green things and the rocks. 
No mortal can love the country as I do; 
For woods and trees and rocks 
Return the echo 
A man desires." 



GIRL CRAZY 

A Musical Comedy- -Overture 

George Gershwin 

1898 - 1937 



Columbia 
M 34543 



15 



GIRL CRAZY is a musical comedy in two acts with music by George Gershwin 
and song lyrics by his brother, Ira. The book is by Guy Bolton and 
John McGowan. The first performance, on October 14, 1930, at the Alvin 
Theatre in New York was a smash hit, followed by a long successful run. Ethel 
Merman made her debut on Broadway in the show. Dressed in a tight black satin 
skirt slit to the knee and a red blouse, her personality kept the audience 
spellbound. But it was when she sang "I Got Rhythm" and held a high C for 16 
bars that her future stardom was assured. After a quarter of a century the 
star is stil 1 shining! 

The plot is slight, dealing with cowboy life on a dude ranch in Arizona. On 
the opening night Allen Kearns, a Gershwin "regular," played the role of 
Danny, a wealthy New York playboy, wild about girls. Banished by his father 
to Custerville, a dusty one-hotel town in Arizona, Danny arrives in a taxi, 
driven by Gieber Goldfarb. Goldfarb, with his comic Yiddish accent, played 
by Willie Howard, decides to stay in Custerville and run for sheriff. He 
next appears in a Western cowboy hat, cowboy clothes, gun belt and spurs with 
a sheriff's badge pinned to his belt. Danny finds Custerville too dull and 
opens a dude ranch with imported New York chorus girls, a gambling room and 
a bar to encourage "high living." Ether Merman played Kate, wife of the 
gambling room proprietor. Danny's plans change when he falls in love with the 
town post mistress, pretty Molly Gray, played by Ginger Rogers. Wandering in 
and out across the scene is a foursome of lazy, tired cowboys, accompanying 
themselves on a tin flute, Jew's harp, occarina and harmonica. One New York 
critic described GIRL CRAZY as "never-ending bubblingly pure joyousness." 

In the orchestra, playing for the premiere, were musicians who later became 
famous for greatness in jazz. In the beginning of the Jazz era when some 
people refused to call it music, George Gershwin had a witty answer: 
"Jazz js music, jazz uses the same notes that Bach used." Gershwin believed 
that jazz was an American achievement because it came from the heart. 

Musical Highlights 

Following the score of the Overture you will discover these rhythmic patterns: 



1 ) Allegro Marcato 

2) Embraceable You 

3) I Got Rhythm 

4) Allegretto con moto 

5) Molto moderato 

6) Vivamente 



> > > > > > 






; rn ' fl t il) 



16 



Musical Highlights , continued 

The Overture to GIRL CRAZY is made up of a number of musical themes from 
the show alternating with short interludes. Interest is maintained by a 
change of keys, of tempo, of rhythmic patterns with syncopation, and by 
colorful orchestration. In the fast interlude ( Vivamente ) near the close there 
is a surprising appearance of Chinese wood blocks. There are no sagging moments 
to dull the brilliance of Gershwin's talent for writing jazz. The two main 
melodies, "I Got Rhythm" and "Embraceable You" are woven into the fabric of the 
Overture, returning as episodic snatches. 

Play the recording as many times as necessary for the children to recognize 
the two main themes - "I Got Rhythm" and "Embraceable You." If movement 
is suggested there might be a group of dancers for each song. Then perhaps 
individual children could move in the interludes. Work towards encouraging 
children's original ideas. Would finger painting be appropriate? Might 
certain well chosen instruments play in the interludes? 

About Jazz and the Composer, George Gershwin 

John Tasker Howard ( Our American Musi c) considers Jazz to be the descendant 
of Ragtime, a form of syncopation that became popular bout 1895. Jazz was 
developed by improvising original melodies on a clarinet while a pianist or 
cornetist played the tune. It became a highly sophisticated form of light 
music before there was any thought of writing it down. It was the vogue in 
expensive cafes and night clubs, attracting the attention of serious musicians 
al 1 over the world. 

The Jazz craze in this country really began when New Orleans bands went to 
Chicago, in 1915 - 16. Among the early "greats" was Ted Lewis of Circleville, 
Ohio. He learned to play the clarinet and was so good that he became the star 
performer with Earl Fuller's band at Rector's in New York. He played his 
clarinet and had as helpers a piano player, cornetist, trombonist and drummer. 
The cornetist and pianist stuck to playing the tune while the drummer busied 
himself with throwing his traps in the air, pounding the bass drum with his 
feet and holding a whistle in his teeth. Ted Lewis pranced around with a 
battered top hat on one side of his head, making his clarinet squeal like a pig. 

This type of "hot" jazz was on the wane when Paul Whiteman organized a band 
of his own and changed the trend by creating a new sound that came to be 
known as symphonic jazz. It was in 1924 that Whiteman took jazz into the 
concert hall with a performance called "An Experiment in Modern Music," to 
show what symphonic treatment could do for popular tunes. This is where 
George Gershwin entered the picture. The most important part of the concert 
was the Rhapsody in Blue , commissioned by Paul Whiteman for the celebrated 
occasion. Gershwin wrote the R hapsody in Blue in ten days. It was orchestrated 
by Ferde Grofe. The clarinet beginning was a stroke of genius. The Rhapsody 
was an immediate success and George Gershwin became famous over night. Since 
its first performance the Rhapsody in Blue has become the most widely and often 
played orchestral work of an American composer. As for the opera, Porgy and Bes s, 
which has played to audiences around the world, speaking eighteen different 
languages, there has been no greater or better advertisement of our country 
any time, any where. 



17 



VI. Song: I'D LIKE TO TEACH THE WORLD TO SING 

The second song for children to sing at the Symphony concert is I'D LIKE TO 
TEACH THE WORLD TO SING. It is printed on the inside back cover of 
"Symphony Stories." 

Children should memorize the song to sing with the Orchestra. They are not 
permitted to bring copies of the words or music into the concert hall. In 
preparation for the concert practice the song without the help of a piano. 
Autoharps, as shown in the score on page 16 of "Symphony Stories," may be 
used to hold the rhythm together, or a drum might play lightly on the first 
beat of each measure. 

Before the audience stands to sing with the orchestra a selected school 
instrumental group will play the song through once. Children chosen to take 
part in the instrumental group must be rehearsed in every participating 
school. The groups should be taught to play in exactly the same way, and 
at the same tempo. The instrumental group will not play with the orchestra. 
It is "on its own" with the direction of a teacher. 

INSTRUMENTS TO BE INCLUDED IN THE CHILDREN'S PLAYING GROUP 

Winds Recorders, flutes, clarinets (transpose song to key of G.) 

small winds, such as tonettes, song flutes, and melody flutes 

Bells Melody bells, xylophones, resonator or tone bells. 

Strings Violins, psalteries, cellos, violas. 

Autoharps Autoharp players follow the chords as written above the 
score. Play two F chords as an introduction. 

Percussion Maracas and tambourines. 



PLAYING INSTRUCTIONS 

All the wind instruments and strings play the entire song. 
Add bells on the third, fourth, and seventh lines. 
Shake tambourines and maracas on the seventh and eighth 
lines, following the rhythmic pattern of the song. On the 
repeat, tambourines and maracas play on the fifth and 
sixth lines. 

SINGING INSTRUCTIONS 

After the instrumental group has played the song, the 
conductor will invite the audience to stand. Tell your 
children to watch for the signal to stand, and to keep 
watching the conductor at all times during the singing 
of the song. 



18 

VII. CAPRICCIO ESPAGNOL Columbia Y30044 

Fourth Movement - Scene and Gypsy Song Odyssey 

Fifth Movement - Fandango Asturiano 
Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakoff 
1844-1908 

The success of Rimsky-Korsakoff 's CAPPRICIO ESPAGNOL was assured from 
the night of its first performance in St. Petersburg on October 31, 
1887. When the orchestra applauded at the end of each movement 
Rimsky-Korsakoff decided to dedicate the work to them. On the fly 
leaf of the printed score he listed the names of all sixty-seven 
players. 

Before writing the Capri ccio Espagnol Rimsky-Korsakoff had sketched a 
virtuso fantasy for violin and orchestra on Spanish themes. He thought 
the orchestra would play a secondary role to the solo instruments. 
Later he re-wrote the fantasy for orchestra alone. Tchaikovsky saw the 
score before it was performed and wrote to Rimsky-Korsakoff: 

"Your Spanish Caprice is a colossal masterpiece 
of instrumentation and you may consider yourself 
as the greatest master of the present day." 

It was all very well to be considered a master of instrumentation, but the 
piece was not an exercise in instrumentation. As Rimsky-Korsakoff always 
pointed out, Capriccio Espagnol was "a composition for orchestra." 

Musical Highlights 

The music is colorful and the orchestration brilliant. In explaining how 
he achieved the musical effects, Rimsky-Korsakoff mentioned "the change 
of timbres, melodic designs and patterns suiting each kind of instrument; 
virtuoso cadenzas for solo instruments; and the rhythm of percussion 
instruments. 

There are five movements, played without pause: 

I. "Alborada" (Morning Song) 

The two principal themes are played by full orchestra 

II. Variations. Arpeggios for violin lead to variations. 
After the horn plays the theme there are five brief 
variations; a flute solo, then a return to 

III. "Alborada" in a different key 

IV. Scene and Gypsy Song 

Roll on the side drum -- brasses 
5 cadenzas 

V. Fandango Asturiano 

Rhythmic theme for trombones 

Dance in triple time, accompanied by castanets 

At the concert the orchestra will play only the fourth and fifth movements. 



19 



IV. 



Musical Highlights , continued 
SCENE AND GYPSY SONG 



10 
11 
12 



13 



14 



legretto, Key of d minor 6/8 

Opens with strong fanfare played by horns 

Cadenza I - Horns and trumpets with drum, triangle, and 

tambourine shaking underneath for 13 measures 

Cadenza II - Solo violin (conforza e capriccioso) for 11 measures 
Interlude -- 4 measures 
Timpani, tambourine, cymbals, violins 

SOLO -- Flute and clarinet (dolce) 
Accompaniment underneath -- timpani, tambourine, cymbals, violins 
Main melody (song) 7 measures 

Cadenza III -- Flute 
Accompaniment underneath - timpani, triangle for 4 measures 

Cadenza IV - Clarinet and cymbals with sponge mallets for 3 measures 

SOLO -- Oboe for 5 measures 
Main melody (song) 
Accompaniment - bassoon and triangle 

CADENZA V - Harp glissando ad lib for 5 measures 

Second theme (dance) -- violins f eroce 
Cymbals for 3 measures 
Interlude - 2 measures 

SOLO -- Flute, clarinet, strings for 10 measures 
Main melody (song) 
Accompaniment underneath 

Second theme (dance) -- violins 6 measures 
Interlude -- 2 measures 

SOLO -- Piccolo, oboe, violins for 9 measures 
Main melody (song) 

SOLOS -- Oboe, clarinet 
Flute 
Cello 
Violins plucked like guitars (pizzicato) 

Second theme (dance) 14 measures 
Flute, oboe, bassoon 
Harp chords plucked 

SOLO -- Woodwinds with string accompaniment for 8 measures 
Main melody (song) 

Then main melody (song) goes to strings with 
woodwinds accompaniment for 7 measures 



:: 



Musical Highlights , continued 
IV. SCENE AND GYPSY SONG 

15) Second theme (dance) 

Strings - 8 measures (spiccato) 

Woodwinds added 

Last three measures - Strings, woodwinds, brasses, 

percussion and the entire orchestra building up to Fandango. 

V. FANDANGO ASTURIANO 

Allegro, Key of A Major 3/4 

1) Main theme - trombones 

2) Related theme - woodwinds 

3) Both themes again with variations and solo cadenzas 

4) Main theme - trombones 

5) "Alborada" from first movement ends the work as an exciting Coda 



THEMES 



IV. SCENE AND GYPSY SONG 



Main Melody (Song) 



MrHH^frf I P rr^i 1 M ' r; I n^TrWrT^ f 



Second Theme (Dance) 

Feroce 




V. FANDANGO ASTURIANO 
Main Theme - Trombones 



mm 



& 



s 



£ 



rfrrf i raff ia 



^£= 



Tromt>ones-v 

Related Theme - Woodwinds 



m A 



Woodwinds 




Bassoons, I>1> 
>C«U1 ' 




Woodwinds, 
Strings 



21 



About the Compose r 

...Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakoff , the second son of a retired government 
official, was born in the small Russian town of Tikhvin in 1844. 
His older brother was twenty-two and away at sea. As with most 
wealthy families the young men were destined for a career in the Navy. 

...In his early years Nicolai loved books but showed little interest 
in music. So when the time came he entered the Naval College in 
St. Petersburg, graduated, and was ordered off on a three-year cruise. 

...Sometimes he played the piano on board, and when the ship was in port 
he heard opera and went to concerts. For three weeks the ship was at 
anchor in New York. He enjoyed hearing American popular songs which he 
described as "plaintive and sweet." In his diary he told how the Ameri- 
cans at their own expense took him and his friends to Niagara Falls and 
put them up in a magnificent hotel. 

...Back in St. Petersburg he began to realize that he was more interested 
in music than in anything else. He loved the music of Beethoven and 
Mendelssohn. The orchestra fascinated him -- it was like a great color 
box. His drive to become a composer led him to seek out kindred spirits. 
He soon was associated with the famous "Kuchka" -- the Russian "Five." 

...In the group were Balakirev, a trained musician; Borodin, a pianist and 
Chemistry Professor; Cui , an engineer, and Moussorgsky, an officer of 
the Imperial Guards. All wanted to create truly Russian music, written 
on native folk themes. 

...With Balakirev's help and his own determination, Rimsky-Korsakoff was 
on the right path. He composed a symphony, several orchestral pieces 
and his first opera. No one ever worked so hard at learning the 
technics of composition. 

...At twenty-seven Rimsky-Korsakoff was asked to join the staff of the 

St. Petersburg Conservatory as professor of composition and orchestration 
and as conductor of the school orchestra. He admitted that he "knew 
nothing," but at Balikirev's insistence he accepted. 

...Rimsky-Korsakoff relates how he eagerly got information from students. 
"At first the pupils did not know I was ignorant. By the time they 
began to see through me I had learned something myself." 

...Through determination and genius he became a brilliant professor. 

Twenty-five years later the Conservatory honored him. He wrote his 

famous "Treatise on Instrumentation" after learning to play all the 
instruments and becoming an authority on the subject. 

...Rimsky-Korsakoff had a \/ery happy home life with his wife and seven 

children. They spent their summers at the seaside or in the country and 
their winters in St. Petersburg. 

...Until the end of his life, Rimsky-Korsakoff was always busy, editing the 
works of friends who were composers, and helping young artists. 



22 



MOVEMENT AND MUSIC 



Freedom in Movement Expressi o n 



ONE DISCOVERY OF PRIMITIVE MAN was that sound and movement expressed his 

feelings better than the language he had invented. As he saw beauty, 
felt love, anger or grief, he needed ways of expressing himself that 
went beyond words. When a friend of Felix Mendelssohn composed some 
words to be set to one of his "Lieder" he returned them, saying: 

"Music is more definite than speech, and to want to explain 
it by means of words is to make the meaning obscure. . . . 
Words seem to me vague if we compare them to true music 
that fills the soul with a thousand things better than words." 

THROUGH RHYTHMIC GESTURES of hands, arms, shoulders, head, feet and torso, 
dancing came to include every movement the body was capable of making, 
even the fluttering of eyelids. As with primitive man the many non-word 
ways of communicating are a vital and important part of a child's 
growing up, and a means of helping him to identify meaningfully with 
the world around him. Structural limitations, imposed too early from 
an adult standard can hamper and delay the process. 

MUCH OF CHILDREN' S BODY MOVEMENT comes from an innate necessity to move 
and a love of movement for its own sake. Joan Russell, a leading 
authority on Modern Dance Education asserts: 

"The child must be free to experience dance which grows 
directly from his personal movement expression." 

IF THIS PHILOSOPHY needs any reinforcement, it was expressed on the occasion 
of the Scripps American Dance Festival award to Martha Graham: 

"To Martha Graham, most American of artists whose genius 
is synonymous with the modern dance. Great dancer and great 
choreographer, she is a supreme innovator. 

In her invention of an entire new idiom, she has contributed 
an unprecedented technique to the vocabulary of dance. Pioneer 
of a new art form, she has had unequaled impact throughout the 
world. Eloquent in her absorption in mankind's tragedy and 
comedy, she has created a theater that is rich in association 
and spare in its focus on essence. 

IN HER BELIEF THAT INNER EMOTION IS REVEALED THROUGH 
MOVEMENT, SHE HAS BARED THE MOST HIDDEN OF PASSIONS." 

MARTHA GRAHAM'S OWN WORDS as a part of her acceptance were: "Everyone 
has only one truly personal possession — his own body." 

TEACHERS WHO ARE HELPING CHILDREN to understand music should not be 

concerned with structured "dancing" but rather with freeing them 
to express their inner feelings through body movement. 



23 



Exploring 



Different 



T y P 



e s 



Free Movement 



BASIC MOVEMENTS 

Locomotor 

Axial — 



Jumping, running, walking, marching, hopping on one 
or both feet; galloping, tip-toe stepping; sliding, 
stamping; leaping, kicking, whirling, turning; skipping. 

shaking, bending, twisting, stretch- 
rolling; moving head, shoulders, 
' ained movement with arms, 



Swinging, swaying, shaking, bending, twisting, stretch- 
ing; crawling, rocking, rolling; moving head, shoulders, 
hands, ankles, wrists; sustained movement with arms, 
backs, legs, hands, fingers, toes, eyes, mouths; 
fast percussive movement with arms, backs, legs, hands, 
fingers, toes, eyes, mouths 



ua^^a, j-cgo, nauuo, 

fast percussive mov 
fingers, toes, eyes 



Combinations — Run and jump; skip and whirl; walk and leap; whirl 
and fall down; swing, bend and stretch; rock and 
lie down 



II. FREE MOVEMENT STIMULATED BY OBSERVATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 



People — 



Animals & — 
Insects 



Mechanical — 
Inventions 



Natural — 
Phenomena 



Mother, father, grandparent, baby, postman, 
policeman, milkman, tennis player, gardener, 
garbage man, house painter, nurse, doctor, 
dentist, old lady, musician, orchestra conductor 

Dogs, cats, squirrels, birds, frogs, worms, 
caterpillers, mosquitos, grasshoppers, cockroaches, 
ants; Animals of farm, circus, and zoo 

Egg beater, windshield wiper, washing machine, dish- 
washer; train, boat, airplane, helicopter, space 
ship; Steam shovel, crane, wheels, bicycles, clock 
parts; oil well pump, printing press, bulldozer 

Rain, snow, hail, wind, fog, lightning, hurricane, 
waterfall; planting, harvesting; movement of 
planets; landslide, earthquake, explosion of volcano 



III. FREE MOVEMENT STIMULATED BY A MOOD OR EMOTION 

Mood — Angry, bored, sad, happy, quiet, sleepy 
Emotion — Joyful, surprised, funny, crazy, depressed 

IV. MOVEMENT STIMULATED BY SOUNDS 

Outdoors — Lawn mowers, sirens, ambulances, fire trucks, 

automobile horns, clock tower chimes, loudspeakers 



Indoors — Ticking clocks, alarms, refrigerators, furnaces, 
running water 



V. MOVEMENT SUGGESTED BY VISUAL STIMULI 



Picture or — Response to linear design, texture, color; 
Textile Design Wallpaper pattern 



VI. CREATIVE MOVEMENT ORIGINATING WITH IDEAS IN: 

A Story , Opera , Play , or Poem 
An incident narrated by a child 

VII. FREE MOVEMENT STIMULATED BY LISTENING TO MUSIC, EXPRESSING AN AWARENESS OF: 

Dynamics (Loud - soft) 

Tempo (Fast- slow) 

Pitch (High - low - same) 

Duration (Long - short) 

Melodic direction (Up, down, same, skip, repeat) 

Pattern (Even - uneven) 

Staccato (Bumpy, rough) 

Legato (Smooth flowing) 

Pulse (Beat) 

Meter (Two, Three, Four, Five, Six, Seven, Nine, Eleven, etc.) 

Phrase, Section 

Stanza - Refrain 

Mood (Scary, sweet, sad, exciting, happy, pompous) 

Form or Structure 

ABA A A B B 

ABC AAAAA, etc. 

RONDO A B A C A D A 



A TIP : Let the music tell the child through repeated listening, 
Call each musical term by its right name. 



25 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Books Filmstrips Films 

About Instruments and the Orchestra 



For the Teacher 



BOOKS 



Stewart, Madeau THE MUSIC LOVER'S GUIDE TO THE INSTRUMENTS Van Nostrand 

OF THE ORCHESTRA Reinhold Company 

1980 
Foreword by Yehudi Menuhin 
This is a fine reference book for all 
school libraries. The English author, 
Madeau Stewart, a professional musician, 
discusses the eighteen principal instru- 
ments that make up the modern orchestra 
in the order in which they appear on the 
page of a score - from piccolo to double 
bass - and explains how each works and how 
it is played. She discusses the main stages 
in the development of the instruments with 
illustrations of orchestral repertoire. The 
book is lavishly illustrated with pictures 
in full color. In the preface Berlioz is 
quoted as saying: 

"It is not enough that the artist 

should be well prepared for the 

public, the public must also be 

well prepared for what it is going 

to hear." 

For the Child THE BOY WHO LOVED MUSIC Viking 

This is the story of Karl, a young horn 
player, and his life in the great European 
castle of Esterhaza. It is based on his- 
torical fact, the composition of Haydn's 
"Farewell" Symphony, in 1772. Colorful 
illustrations. 

Note: Both books from Raleigh-Wake County, 
Supervisor's Music Library 



About Composers 



BEETHOVEN 



First, Julia 

Jacobs, David 
Forbes, Elliott 

Johnson, Ann D. 



Mir sky, Reba Paeff 
Wheeler, Opal 
Young, Percy M. 



BEETHOVEN 
BEETHOVEN 

THE VALUE OF GIVING — The Story 
of Beethoven 

BEETHOVEN 

LUDWIG BEETHOVEN AND THE CHIMING TOWER 

BEETHOVEN 



Watts 
Harper & Row 

Oak Tree Publications 

Follett 
Dutton 
D. White 



BEETHOVEN — A STORY IN PICTURES 
Filmstrip with sound 
Part 1 and Part 2 

BEETHOVEN — Great Composers Series 

Color filmstrip with sound 

BEETHOVEN — 19 Slides (black and white) 

VIENNA, CITY OF MUSIC — 71 slides (black and white) 

Order from Austrian Institute, 11 E. 52nd St., New York 10032 
Slides are free — borrower pays return postage 



Bowmar /Noble 

Los Angeles 90039 

Jam Handy-Scott 
Holyoke, Mass. 01040 

Austrian Institute 

Austrian Institute 



GERSHWIN 



Armitage, Merle 
Bryant, Bernice 

Ewen, David 

Ewen, David 

Jablonski, Edward & 
Stewart, Lawrence D, 



GEORGE GERSHWIN, MAN AND LEGEND 

GEORGE GERSHWIN: YOUNG COMPOSER 
Children Grades 3-7, illustrated 

GEORGE GERSHWIN — HIS JOURNEY TO 
GREATNESS, Same title 

THE LIFE AND MUSIC OF GEORGE GERSHWIN 

THE GERSHWIN YEARS 



Duel, Sloane, Pearce 
Bobbs Merrill 



Prentice-Hall 
Greenwood 



Holt 
Doubleday 



Kimball & Simon 



THE GERSHWINS 



Atheneum 



27 



Schwartz, Charles 

Dexter, Dave 
Evans, Mark 



GERSHWIN, continued 



GERSHWIN, HIS LIFE AND MUSIC 



JAZZ STORY 

Upper Grades, illustrated 

SCOTT JOPLIN AND THE RAGTIME YEARS 



Bobbs Merrill 



Dodd 



Jacob, Heinrich E. 
Kupferberg, Herbert 

Moshansky, Mozelle 



MENDELSSOHN 
FELIX MENDELSSOHN AND HIS TIMES 



Greenwood 



FELIX MENDELSSOHN: HIS LIFE, HIS FAMILY, Scribner 
HIS MUSIC 



MENDELSSOHN: HIS LIFE AND TIMES 
(1980) 



Hippocrene Books 



Abraham, Gerald E, 

Montagu-Nathan , 
Montagu 

RIMSKY-KORSAKOFF 



Zetlin, Michael 



RIMSKY-KORSAKOFF 
RIMSKY-KORSAKOFF 
RIMSKY-KORSAKOFF 

THE HISTORY OF MY MUSICAL LIFE 

THE FIVE (Russian) 



A M S Press 
A M S Press 



J. A. Joffe, 
English translation 



Greenwood 



Craft, Robert & 
Stravinsky, Vera 

Debrin, Arnold 

Libman, Lillian 



Shirley-Smith, 
Richard 

Stravinsky, Igor 



Stravinsky, Theodore 



STRAVINSKY 
STRAVINSKY 

IGOR STRAVINSKY: HIS LIFE AND TIMES 

AND MUSIC AT THE CLOSE: STRAVINSKY'S 
LAST YEARS 

STRAVINSKY 



POETICS OF MUSIC IN THE FORM OF SIX 
LESSONS 

CATHERINE AND IGOR STRAVINSKY 
Beautiful photographs 



Knopf 

Crowell 
Norton 

D. White 

Harvard Paperback 

Boosey & Hawkes 



Young, Percy M. 



STRAVINSKY 



D. White 



:s 



ILMSTRIPS 



About 



the 



Orchestra 



The Heart of the Orchestra 

Shining Brass 

The Woodwinds 

The Beat of the Drum 



Sinner - S V F, 

1345 Diversev Pkway, 

Chicago 60614 



Color Filmstrip with cassette 
Once Upon a Sound - Set of four 
to familiarize children with the 
sounds and appearance of instruments, 
one from each of the four basic sections 
brass, woodwinds, strings and percussion 

Patriotic 



Jam Handy - Scott 
Scott Educational 
Division 
I-Tolyoke, Mass, 
01040 



THE FOLLOWING FILMSTRIPS MAY BE ORDERED FOR 30-DAY 
PRE -VIEW - NO CHARGE EXCEPT RETURN POSTAGE. 



T h 



Cat. No. 506 



Cat. No. 505 



Folk Songs and the American Flag 
2 color filmstrips, 2 records 
Performed by Burl Ives 

Folk Songs in the War of 1812 
2 color filmstrips, 2 records 
Performed by Burl Ives 



Star-Spangled 



Banner 



Warren Schloat 
Productions, Tnc. 
Plepsantville, N. Y. 

1057^ 



FILMSTRIPS AND RECORDINGS MAY BE ORDERED ON 30-DAY 
APPROVAL. MATERIALS NOT RETURNED WITHIN THAT TIME 
WILL BE INVOICED. 

Customer Service will accept your order or answer your 
questions by telephone. Call collect (203) 226 - 3355, 



Set 39 



The Star-Spangled Banner 

Also includes Clementine, The Erie Canal, 
She'll Be Comin' Round the Mountain 
Same songs available on Record Album 
P B P 139 



Weston Woods 
Weston, Connecticut 
06883 



No. 166 



The Star-Spangled Banner 

illus. by Peter Spier - Doubleday 

SF 166 C - with cassette 

HBC 166 - book-cassette package 



RESOURCE BOOK 



The most comprehensive listing of filmstrips on all subjects is the 1980 edition 
of INDEX to 35 mm. EDUCATIONAL FILMSTRIPS published by the University of Southern 
California, University Park, Los Angeles, 90007. (FILM INDEX, too)